Depression, Depression Types

Manic Episode

Defined by a distinct period during which there is abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood.

Additional symptoms are typically present- inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, increased involvement in goal-oriented activities, and flight of ideas.

The elevated mood in a Manic Episode can be described as euphoric, unusually good, cheerful, or high.

Although elevated mood is considered the prototypical symptom, the predominant mood disturbance me be irritability, particularly when the persons wishes are thwarted.

The persons thoughts may race and at a rate in which it is hard to comprehend.

Criteria for Manic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting 1 week.

B. During this mood disturbance, three of the following symptoms have persisted and have been present to a significant degree:

1. inflated self-esteem

2. decreased need for sleep

3. more talkative than usual or pressure to keep taking

4. flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing

5. distractibility

6. increase in goal-oriented activity

7. excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences

C. The symptoms do not meet criteria for Mixed Episode.

D. The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others

E. The symptoms are not due to a direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition

Specifier

In the DSM, there is a section in the Mood Disorder section that is called specifiers.

Specifiers are a way to further categorize the major disorders to further diagnostic capabilities in addition to help describe the current type of episode or disorder with particular features, or, specifiers.

Mild:

Minimum symptom criteria are met for a Manic Episode.

Moderate:

Extreme increase in activity or impairment in judgement.

Severe Without Psychotic Features:

Almost continual supervision required to prevent harm to self or others.

Severe With Psychotic Features:

Delusions or hallucinations. If possible specify whether the psychotic dentures are mood-congruent or mood-incongruent.

Mood-Congruent Psychotic Features:

Delusions or hallucinations whose content is entirely consistent with the typical manic themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person.

Mood-Incongruent Psychotic Features:

Delusions and hallucinations whose content does not involve typical manic themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person. Included are such symptoms as persecutory delusions (not directly related to grandiose ideas or themes), thought insertion, and delusions of being controlled.

In Partial Remission:

Symptoms of a Manic Episode are present but full criteria are not met, or there is a period without ant significant symptoms of a Major Depressive Episode less than 2 months following the end of the Manic Episode.

In Full Remission:

During the past 2 months, no significant signs or symptoms of the disturbance were present.